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Posts tagged ‘child support’

Child Support in Ontario: Introduction to Child Custody – video


Wednesday’s Video Clip: Child Support in Ontario, Introduction to Child Custody

In Ontario, like other jurisdictions, both parents have a responsibility to financially support their children. For the spouse without custody, the amount of child support that must be paid is based on income and the number of children. In this short video clip, Shelley, a senior family law clerk at Russell Alexander Family Lawyers, talks about custody and answers questions many people have about child support.

Top Divorce Blogs of 2013

top 10

Top 10 Familyllb’s Blogs of 2013

Well it has been another busy year for us and our bog has been honoured with a Clawbies Award as one of Canada’s top legal blogs.  Thank you to everyone for your continued comments and support.

Here are some of our Top 10 Blogs for 2013:

Number 10: Top 5 Things Self Represented Litigants should know about conducting a trial10.1

As a self-represented party, you must present your own case at trial. The purpose of this blog is to set out some practical and procedural matters with respect to the trial process in order to assist you in representing yourself.


Number 9: Selling the Matrimonial Home – What if One Spouse Won’t Co-operate?9 9 9

A recent decision called Ivancevic-Berisa v. Berisa shows what Ontario courts can do if one spouse refuses to co-operate in selling the matrimonial home post-separation.


Number 8: Husband Downgrades Job, Then Quits Altogether – But Support Stays the Same8

This was a case which shows that a voluntary change in circumstances – including a significant reduction in income – does not necessarily mean that a parent’s obligation to pay child support will be reduced correspondingly.


Number 7: 5 Ways to Make Sure Your Separation Agreement is Valid 7

Separation agreements can be a useful means by which separating spouses can take first steps toward unwinding their financial and family-related affairs by way of a mutual agreement. This Blog was a fan favorite in 2012 and continues to be popular as it provides a list of the top five ways to ensure that a separation agreement is valid and enforceable in Ontario.

Number 6: We’re Officially Separated – Can I Change the Locks on the House? 6

When a couple first separates under contentious circumstances, I will often get questions about what each party’s respective rights are in the early stages, i.e. before the long process has started of formally dividing up their assets and dealing with any support and child-related issues. One of the most common questions is whether the spouse who remains in the matrimonial home after separation can change the locks in order to exclude the other spouse.

Number 5: Texting and Family Law – Top 3 Things to Know5.1 bmp

Virtually everyone texts these days. In the context of Family Law disputes, it can be a useful tool for short, informative exchanges between separated spouses, for example to efficiently communicate on matters relating to the day-to-day care and custody any children they share.

But in the hands of some former couples, they can serve as a high-tech medium for thinly-veiled hostility, confrontation, acrimony and confusion.


Number 4: Top 5 Things to Know About the Canada Child Tax Benefit 4

This blog was also a fan favourite in 2012. Soon it will be time to start thinking about individual income taxes, and all of the various components that go into providing the federal government with a financial “snapshot” for the past year.

For separated or divorcing spouses with children, one of those components is the Canada Child Tax Benefit (CCTB).

Number 3:  What “Material Change” is Not: Some Real-Life (and Perhaps Surprising) Examples3

The concept of “material change” involves the notion that a court-imposed order requiring a parent or spouse to pay support may have been fair at the time it was handed down, but subsequently becomes unfair due to unforeseen circumstances. Where a later court finds that such “material change” has taken place, it may have the authority in the right circumstances to vary the initial order accordingly.

This determination of what constitutes “material change” is not always straightforward. Indeed, some scenarios may intuitively seem to qualify on first blush, but on closer examination turn out not to meet the legal standard at all.

Number 2: Top 5 Questions About Adultery and Divorce in Ontario2.1

Leaving aside the intriguing question of how adultery affects couples psychologically and emotionally (and why such powerful, successful people would jeopardize their marital relationships in this manner), the legal effect of adultery is quite clear.

In Ontario (as elsewhere in Canada), the laws relating to divorce based on a adultery are governed by the federal Divorce Act, which provides that a “breakdown of a marriage is established only if the spouses have lived separate and apart for at least one year or the spouse against whom the divorce proceeding is brought has committed adultery or treated the other spouse with physical or mental cruelty.” (Note that it must be the other party who commits the act: a spouse cannot apply for a divorce based on his or her own adultery).

Number 1: 10 Things You Should Know About Child Support1.11.11.1  1.1

1.2Again, this continues to be a very popular post and is evidence of the ongoing need that parents have to for information about child support.  This blog examines how all dependent children have a legal right to be financially supported by their parents. When parents live together with their children, they support the children together. Parents who do not live together often have an arrangement in which a child lives most of the time with one parent. That parent is said to have custody of the child. This arrangement can be written in a separation agreement or court order (sometimes called legal custody), or may occur without a written agreement or court order (sometimes called “de facto” custody).

Either way, the parent with custody has the main responsibility for the day-to-day care of the child and has most of the ordinary expenses of raising the child. The other parent should help with those expenses by paying money to the parent with custody. This is called child support.

There you have it.  Some of our top Blogs for 2013.  Thank you  again to everyone who have visited our Blog and all your continued comments and support and thank you for the honour of a Clawbie Award.

Two necessary evils — know your obligations re: income tax and spousal/ child support – Video



Wednesday’s Video Clip: Know your obligations re: income tax and spousal/ child support

Income tax: Not a popular concept even at the best of times. But add in the obligations, which arise in the context of paying child or spousal support, and it’s enough to cause heart palpitations in most Canadians.

This is because the Canada Revenue Agency rules relating to how support payments are to be treated are quite complex. To make things more confusing, the federal Income Tax Act has separate rules for spousal support as opposed to child support.

In this video we review some key points to keep in mind.

How Base Child Support is Calculated – Video


Wednesday’s Video Clip: How Base Child Support is Calculated

In this video we discuss how the Child Support Table in the Guidelines sets out the amounts of support to be paid, depending on the “gross income” of the paying parent and the number of children that the support order covers. Gross income means before taxes and most other deductions. The amounts to be paid are based on the average amounts of money that parents at various income levels spend to raise a child.

In simple cases, the table alone will determine how much money will be paid. In more complicated cases, the table is used as the starting point. There is a different table for each province and territory.

Sometimes, a judge does not accept a parent’s statement of income. Instead the judge uses an amount of income that is reasonable based on things such as the parent’s work history, past income, and education. The judge will then apply the table to that income.

When Can A Parent Apply For Child Support – Video


Wednesday’s Video Clip: When Can A Parent Apply For Child Support

In this videowe review how parents who have their children living with them after separation can apply for child support at any time. Usually they apply right after they separate or as part of their divorce application. They often apply for custody and child support at the same time. It is usually best to deal with these matters as early as possible.

Sometimes parents with custody do not want or need child support at first, but later their situation changes. They can apply for child support when the need occurs, even after a divorce and all other matters arising from the separation have been settled. But if a step-parent is asked to pay support, the more time that has passed since the step-parent had an ongoing relationship with the child, the less likely it is that the court will order support payments. This is especially true if the step-parent’s social and emotional relationship with the child has ended.

A parent can apply for custody and support even while living separately under the same roof after their relationship with the other parent is over. But usually the court will not make any order for custody and support until one parent has actually moved out.

Child Support & Parents on Social Assistance


Wednesday’s Video Clip: Ontario Child Support & Parents on Social Assistance

In this video we take a look at parents on social assistance who have custody of their children must make reasonable efforts to get support from the other parent. If they do not, they may receive less assistance, or none at all. If they do not already have a support agreement or order, they are expected to get one. They must give information about the other parent to a family support worker who can help them get a support agreement or order.

They should get legal advice before signing any agreement worked out on their behalf.

Usually, the payments go directly to them, and that same amount is deducted from their monthly social assistance cheque. But if there is a history of non-payment, the child support payments can be assigned to Ontario Works (OW) or the Ontario Disability Support Program (ODSP). Then they will get their whole social assistance cheque, even when the support payments are not paid.

Parents on social assistance who do not have custody are expected to pay child support to the extent that they can, as set out in the Child Support Guidelines. Currently, the Guidelines do not require support payments from parents whose income is less than about $6,700 a year.

Does The Age of The Child Affect Child Support in Ontario?


Wednesday’s Video Clip: Does The Age of The Child Affect Child Support in Ontario?

In this video Shelley discusses how and when the age of the child could affect child support and the importance of income, and how the age and needs of the child  should be considered.

How Do You Arrange For Child Support To Be Paid in Ontario?

Wednesday’s Video Clip: How Do You Arrange For Child Support To Be Paid in Ontario?

Sometimes parents are able to work out child support payments on their own. Other times, they get help from a mediator, or a judge determines what the payments will be.

In this video, family lawyer Russell Alexander talks about how support payments can be made, the need for financial information and use of the child support guidelines. Written agreements are helpful and the need for separate or independent legal advice is also discussed.

Father Loses Work, Refuses to Sign Negotiated Agreement – Now What?


Father Loses Work, Refuses to Sign Negotiated Agreement – Now What?

Couples who have separation agreements in place sometimes have to make changes to reflect new and unforeseen circumstances. But what happens if one of them refuses to sign?

A recent case demonstrates this scenario, and what a court will do once it is asked to step in.

The couple had separated in 2008 after six years of marriage. They signed Minutes of Settlement at the time, which covered most of the legal issues between them including child support. When the husband’s income subsequently increased, it became necessary to vary that agreement. The parties commenced negotiations, set out the framework of a new deal, and were very close to settling on a new support amount. Minutes of Settlement that had been drafted by the wife’s lawyer were sent to the husband for his review.

Then, things took a turn for the worse. The husband was a home renovation contractor, but he lost his major ongoing contract. A partnership in which he was involved also failed. As a result, he was unable to pay child support at the level that had been discussed during negotiations. In fact, he was unable to pay even at the former level.

He refused to sign the draft Minutes of Settlement that had reflected their discussions up to that point.

The wife went to court, asking for an Order that reflected the terms of the Minutes of Settlement that had been most recently drafted and sent to the father. She claimed that she and the husband had reached an agreement on substantially all the issues in dispute, and that a court Order should be granted on the same terms.

The husband, meanwhile, argued that the two of them had not fully come to terms – a minor issue about one of their children’s allergies was still not settled. He also claimed that his present employment situation rendered him unable to pay child support as had been tentatively agreed.

The court described its task as follows: “The court must initially make a finding as to whether the parties had reached an agreement and if it finds that they had done so, it must decode whether to exercise its discretion to enforce the agreement.”

By the law, if the parties had reached an agreement, then it could still be enforced even if it was not signed. But the court was entitled to use its discretion in deciding whether or not to enforce it – and there were certain factors that had to be considered, namely:

1. The agreement’s terms were not improvident or unconscionable.

2. There was no inequality of bargaining power.

3. Neither party acted in bad faith.

4. Neither of their lawyers acted without authority.

5. The terms were sufficiently clear as to avoid further litigation.

6. The terms dealt with most of the issues in dispute.

Here, there were factors going both ways: On the one hand, the agreement was fair, and had been negotiated freely and in person. On the other hand, and the husband had waited 11 months to advise the wife’s lawyer that the last draft he received was unacceptable to him.

Overall, the court found in this case that the husband and wife did not reach a final agreement; it added, however, that even if that conclusion was wrong, the court would nonetheless exercise its discretion not to enforce it.

Instead, the court amended the agreement to the negotiated agreement, with variation to reflect the change in employment and other circumstances that took place since the tentative agreement was reached. The level of child support owed by the husband, both past and going-forward, was adjusted accordingly.

Kalverda v. Kalverda, 2013 ONSC 1795 (CanLII)

At Russell Alexander, Family Lawyers our focus is exclusively family law, offering pre-separation legal advice and assisting clients with family related issues including: custody and access, separation agreements, child and spousal support, division of family property, paternity disputes, and enforcement of court orders. For more information, visit us at Russell

Top 5 Tips for Dealing with the Family Responsibility Office


Top 5 Tips for Dealing with the Family Responsibility Office

A while ago I wrote about the role of the provincial Family Responsibility Office (FRO) More About The Family Responsibility Office, Some Common Problems Addressed.  (For those who aren’t aware: In Ontario, all child support orders are automatically filed with the FRO, which operates under legislation giving it an arsenal of mechanisms by which to encourage and enforce timely payment of support on the part of the paying parent.)

If you are such a payor pursuant to a court-issued Support Order, here are five tips for dealing with the FRO:

1. Always keep the FRO updated on address changes.

Otherwise, you may miss out on receiving the various noticed that the FRO is required by law to give you. These may include a warning that the enforcement mechanisms that can be levied against you are about to be stepped up – for example a notice that your driver’s license is about to be suspended.

2. Keep the FRO apprised of your employment situation.

If you have lost your job, have been laid off work, or have had your income reduced due to disability or a reduction of overtime, then the FRO should be made aware. In such situations your next step may be to obtain a variation of the filed child support order that triggers the FRO’s involvement in the first place, which will in turn affect the FRO’s role and mandate in the enforcement process.

3. Don’t ignore anything you have received from the FRO.

Many of the processes involving the FRO allow for only a few days for you to respond; the FRO may quickly escalate the remedies available to assist with collection and you don’t want to be surprised by any of them. The FRO’s available avenues for encouraging your compliance and payment can include: suspending your driver’s license or passport, a garnishee of your wages (via a “Support Deduction Order” sent to your employer), filing writs or liens against your property, seizing your income tax refunds and HST rebates, seizing your bank accounts and – last but not least – imposing jail time of up to 180 days.

4. Document everything.

This includes not only your correspondence with the FRO, but also the paper trail of any support payments that you have made. Payments to the FRO can be made by way of internet banking or telephone banking and may be the easiest to document; payments by cheque or money order are more cumbersome to track. But regardless of the method, make sure to designate the FRO case number on any payment that you make.

5. Always make the mandated support payments if you can.

As mentioned, the FRO has a wide arsenal of options to deal with delays or non-payment, including jail time if necessary. Naturally, these shorter-term consequences should be avoided if at all possible. But there can be longer-term drawbacks as well: arrears in child support payments will show up negatively on your credit bureau report, which can affect you for years to come.

At Russell Alexander, Family Lawyers our focus is exclusively family law, offering pre-separation legal advice and assisting clients with family related issues including: custody and access, separation agreements, child and spousal support, division of family property, paternity disputes, and enforcement of court orders.

For more information, visit us at

So what do you think?  Do you have any tips or comments for dealing with FRO?