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Posts from the ‘Settlements’ Category

The Bezos fortune gets divided in a private divorce agreement and Amazon doesn’t miss a beat

The Bezos fortune gets divided in a private divorce agreement and Amazon doesn’t miss a beat

MacKenzie Bezos announced earlier today in a tweet that she and, now ex-husband, Jeff Bezos, have settled their financial affairs in a private divorce agreement. Though full details of the Agreement are not publicly available, MacKenzie declared she was “happy” to sign over 75% of the couple’s jointly owned stock in Amazon as well as voting control of her shares and her interests in The Washington Post and the Blue Origin aerospace company.

Following the news of the Bezos family settlement, Amazon’s stock price reportedly dropped by a mere 0.4%. The Bezos’ settlement out of court played a significant role in stabilizing the effect their separation would have on Amazon’s viability, and stock price. Consider the contrary, for a moment—had the Bezos’ litigated their family law dispute, personal financial details would have been made public record, and the very fate of Amazon may have been at the discretion of a family court judge—which could have resulted in an outcome felt around the world.

The success of the Bezos family settlement illustrates key benefits of resolving legal issues out of court: privacy, creativity and a controlled impact on the family business. These same benefits can be realized by family business owners who choose the collaborative process. Collaborative clients are empowered to privately resolve legal issues using creative solutions like share transfers, family trusts and delayed equalization, to name a few, to ensure an orderly transition, preserving the family business, and family legacy for generations.

We have published several other posts on the very topic of how the collaborative process can help family run businesses survive and thrive after divorce. To learn more, click here.

At Russell Alexander, Family Lawyers our focus is exclusively family law, offering pre-separation legal advice and assisting clients with family related issues including: custody and access, separation agreements, child and spousal support, division of family property, paternity disputes, and enforcement of court orders. For more information, visit us at

What Constitutes “Hardship” When You Are Well-to-Do?

What Constitutes “Hardship” When You are Well-to-Do?

In determining the proper amount of spousal support that should be awarded after a married couple divorces, the court is guided by various established legal and policy-based principles. One of them is that the support should seek to alleviate economic “hardship” on the part of the spouse who is entitled to receive it.

As with many of the other factors, the concept of “hardship” is relative:  What amounts to hardship in one family setting will be vastly different to what is considered hardship in another.

This dichotomy was well-illustrated in Plese v. Herjavec, which involved the high-profile divorce between Canadian television personality Robert Herjavec (most recently seen on the reality shows Shark Tank and Dragon’s Den) and his wife of 24 years, Diane Plese.

In the context of determining the appropriate amount of spousal support to which the wife should be entitled, the court wrote:

Spousal support is also designed to relieve economic hardship.  What is “hardship” in the context of this family?  I need to look at the pre-separation lifestyle of the family to understand this context.

At the date of separation, the parties lived in a 22,000 square foot home (not counting the basement) with an indoor pool, ballroom, tennis court, tea house, and ten-car garage housing numerous luxury vehicles. The home was located on more than 2 acres in one of the most exclusive areas of Toronto.  The parties owned a ski chalet in Caledon, a luxurious vacation property in Florida, boats and other water craft and a Muskoka cottage.

The former couple’s lifestyle was commensurately extravagant, as the court described:

The family travelled extensively.  Family holidays were often taken using THG’s private jet, which Ms. Plese described as one that can fly “over the ocean”.  Holidays included European destinations.  On a holiday in Greece, the parties rented a yacht and staff to sail the family around the Greek Isles.  Ms. Plese testified that if the aircraft was being used for THG business, and she wished to take a trip, Mr. Herjavec would charter a private plane for her.   Mr. Herjavec did not refute this evidence.

Ms. Plese’s financial statement shows she owns considerable expensive jewellery from Cartier.  At valuation day it was worth over $428,000.  Ms. Plese says this figure reflect roughly half of what it cost.  Again, I heard no evidence to the contrary.

Mr. Herjavec testified he spent $100,000 on a piano for High Point, but, since no one in the family could play, invested a further $25,000 on a device that would play the piano.  Mr. Herjavec owned and operated numerous luxury cars. The middle child, Skye, received a car for her 16th birthday.  The children were educated at exclusive private schools.  The two girls attended elite American universities.  Both older children have pursued post-graduate studies, at no personal financial cost to them.  The family lived a rarified existence of privilege and luxury.

It is telling that [their daughter] Skye, when asked whether it was true she enjoyed luxurious holidays with her family, simply answered:

I mean they were just vacations to me, I don’t – it depends on how you see them.

Skye was then asked how she saw them. She answered:

I was going on vacation with my family … it depends what you – like that’s how I grew up, that’s – it was a vacation with my family is how I saw it.

In awarding support, the court had to examine the post-split downgraded lifestyle that the wife was now living, in light of the divorce after a longstanding marriage.  The court explained:

Ms. Plese testified that her lifestyle has suffered since the breakdown of the marriage.  For example, instead of travelling by private jet, she flies with commercial airlines.  Instead of staying in a suite of rooms at luxurious hotels, she now stays in a single hotel room.   I have no evidence that Mr. Herjavec has experienced any similar reduction in his lifestyle.

I conclude that without spousal support, Ms. Plese will have suffered economic hardship as a result of the end of the marriage.

For the full text of the decision, see:

Plese v. Herjavec, 2018 

At Russell Alexander Collaborative Family Lawyers, our focus is exclusively family law, offering pre-separation legal advice and assisting clients with family related issues including: custody and access, separation agreements, child and spousal support, division of family property, paternity disputes, and enforcement of court orders.  For more information, visit us at

Former Shark Tank Star Ordered to Pay Ex-Wife $125,000 Per Month in Support

Former Shark Tank Star Ordered to Pay Ex-Wife $125,000 Per Month in Support

In a recent ruling by the Ontario court the husband, well-known TV-celebrity Robert Herjavec was ordered to pay his ex-wife, Diane Plese, $125,000 per month in spousal support for an indeterminate period.  He was also ordered to pay her about $25 million, representing an equalization payment and her entitlement to shares in a cottage and vacation property. This is in addition to about $20 million she already received in assets from the marriage.

Herjavec, one of the stars of television’s Shark Tank and Dragon’s Den reality shows, had been married to Plese for 24 years before they split in 2014.  Their separation was prompted by the revelation that he had been having an extramarital affair.

At stake in the divorce was what they considered an “unimaginable fortune,” which had snowballed from an original $31 million sale of Herjavec’s cyber-security company called “Brak” in 2001.  This funded the development of a similar, equally-lucrative business later on.  The influx of wealth had a significant effect on the couple’s lifestyle, as the court explained:

After the Brak sale, the family’s spending patterns changed dramatically.  A new family home was purchased for over $7 million.  It was located in the exclusive Bridle Path area of Toronto.  In addition to many bedrooms, bathrooms, living and dining and family room, it also featured an indoor swimming pool, a ballroom, teahouse, and a huge garage, large enough to store many vehicles. 

They acquired a new recreational property on Fisher Island in Florida.  It cost more than $2.6 million.  Boats and cars were purchased.  The children were sent to exclusive private schools.  Ultimately, Ms. Plese stopped working outside the home altogether.

In the context of settling their family law issues, the court turned to valuing the former couple’s property, including their 22,500-square-foot matrimonial home now valued at around $17 million, their $5 million cottage, their $4.8 million property in Fisher Island, as well as various boats, vehicles, and even their Aeroplan points.  This was a considerable challenge due to the significant difference in valuations provided by their respective experts:   For example, respecting the value each expert attributed to Herjavec’s current business alone, there was a spread of $30 million.

After concluding that Plese was entitled to about $25 million for her share of these items, the court turned to the issue of how much spousal support Herjavec should pay her.  In doing so, the court cited from a paragraph of his own book, as evidence of the importance of the marriage and Plese’s support to his success. The court said:

This was a lengthy marriage of nearly three decades.  The parties both testified they worked as a team.   Mr. Herjavec himself perhaps put it best in his book titled Driven: How to Succeed in Business and in Life.  At page 286 he says:

I’m fortunate in so many ways to have Diane as my spouse.  She earned her optometry degree over six strenuous years of study, years that included countless nights of study and work as an intern.  She knows what it’s like to work eighteen or twenty hours a day in pursuit of a goal; she understands the motivation behind it.  Having obtained her degree she could count on a good income from steady employment, providing a safety net if one of my projects went belly up.  This was enormous comfort to both of us, especially during my first years as an entrepreneur. 

Clearly, Ms. Plese’s contributions from her own work were critical to Mr. Herjavec’s financial success, particularly in the early years of the marriage when he began Brak.   Brak, of course, provided the foundation for [the later company] and its ultimate success.  What Ms. Plese lost when she stopped working outside the home was that very steady employment and her own financial safety net created from her own separate earnings.  This is a compensable loss.

In all the circumstances, the court concluded that Plese was entitled to spousal support of $125,000 per month, with no set termination date.  Although this amount was actually lower than what the Spousal Support Advisory Guidelines would otherwise dictate, it incorporated the ongoing capital positions of each of the former spouses, and represented a reasonable balancing of the economic consequences of the end of their marriage.

For the full text of the decision, see:

Plese v. Herjavec, 2018

At Russell Alexander, Family Lawyers our focus is exclusively family law, offering pre-separation legal advice and assisting clients with family related issues including: custody and access, separation agreements, child and spousal support, division of family property, paternity disputes, and enforcement of court orders.  For more information, visit us at

“Property” or “Income”? Appeal Court Rules on Structured Settlement Annuities

Image result for structured settlement annuity

“Property” or “Income”? Appeal Court Rules on Structured Settlement Annuities

Recently the Ontario Court of Appeal delivered a ruling on a very narrow, but important, issue:  Whether structured settlement annuity payments are considered “property” or “income” under Ontario family law legislation dealing with property-division by spouses on separation.

In Hunks v. Hunks, the wife had been injured while shopping at a supermarket.  She was hit by either a shopping cart or a pallet, and sued the store for damages.  When her claim was later settled, about $300,000 from the proceeds of her settlement were used to create a structured settlement annuity.  This paid out funds to her on a regular, pre-determined basis since she was no longer able to work.

At the point when she and the husband separated, the wife was still entitled to receive about 13 years’ worth of payments from the annuity.

In the context of determining their respective Net Family Property amounts for the purposes of equalization, a legal question arose as to whether the wife’s annuity payment entitlement should be counted as “property” or as “income” as those terms are used in the Ontario Family Law Act.

This was an important distinction:  If they were “income”, then they would be taken into account when calculating spousal support obligations.  If they were “property”, then their treatment would depend on other provisions of the Act that might allow for their exclusion.

The Court of Appeal concluded that such structured settlement annuities are properly considered “income” under the Act.

The key was that the annuity arose from a structured settlement, which is created when some or all of a personal injury settlement is deposited with a life insurance company in exchange for guaranteed, tax-free payments for the recipient’s lifetime, or for a specific number of years.  The court noted that annuities arising from personal injury settlements are very specialized contracts, and are subject to certain legal contingencies and stipulations.

The net result is that the casualty insurer is actually the legal owner and beneficiary of the contract.  Using the wife’s case as an example, it was the casualty insurer that purchased the annuity, and made an irrevocable direction to the issuer of the annuity contract to make all payments directly to the wife.  The court noted that an individual, such as the wife, is not entitled to purchase a structured settlement him or herself.

With that vantage-point, it could not be said that during the marriage the wife “received” the $300,000 used for the structured settlement.   The court also noted that payments received pursuant to a structured settlement annuity were analogous to disability benefits, which was another reason they should be treated as income.  Like disability benefits – which prior courts have concluded are “income” for these purposes – structured settlement annuity payments are meant to replace employment income that the wife would have earned if she had been able to work.  Since they provide her with financial support because she cannot work, they are “of the same nature as the income she would have earned had she not been injured.”

For the full text of the decision, see:

Hunks v. Hunks

At Russell Alexander, Family Lawyers our focus is exclusively family law, offering pre-separation legal advice and assisting clients with family related issues including: custody and access, separation agreements, child and spousal support, division of family property, paternity disputes, and enforcement of court orders.  For more information, visit us at


Did Wedding Planning Make Bride Vulnerable to Signing a Bad Separation Agreement?

wedding planner

Did Wedding Planning Make Bride Vulnerable to Signing a Bad Separation Agreement?

Did the fact that a bride-to-be was absorbed in wedding-planning details make her vulnerable and prone to signing an improvident separation agreement with her future husband? Did this give rise to a situation of “unconscionability”?

That was the essence of the issue in a recent Ontario case called Toscano v. Toscano, where the court reflected on what constitutes “unconscionability” in the particular context of two spouses who had negotiated a separation agreement just before their wedding.

The threshold test is an important one, because under section 56(4) of the Ontario Family Law Act, a court can set aside and invalidate even the most earnestly-negotiated, mutually-acceptable separation agreement if it finds that the situation and circumstances under which it was negotiated was nonetheless “unconscionable”.

(And it’s important to note that the unconscionability test that governs whether a separation agreement can be set aside refers to the circumstances at the time of drafting and signing the agreement – not the results of the agreement).

With that in mind, the court in Toscano started its examination with this comment:

Matrimonial negotiations occur in a unique environment and therefore unconscionability in the matrimonial context is not equivalent to unconscionability in a commercial context.

Drawing next from prior family decisions – including one called Rick v. Brandsema that went all the way to the Supreme Court of Canada – the court in Toscano observed that the relevant question is whether there were “any circumstances of oppression, pressure, or other vulnerabilities, and if one party’s exploitation of such vulnerabilities during the negotiation process resulted in a separation agreement that deviated substantially from the legislation”.

The court then gave some examples:

• There may be a situation of inequality of bargaining power – i.e. one party might be intellectually weaker than the other. This may encompass an economical weakness, a situational weakness, or a disease of the mind.

• Or, one spouse may be more vulnerable than the other, due to a special relationship of trust and confidence.

But that does not necessarily determine the matter, either. The court in Toscano referred to another decision called Rosen v. Rosen where the Ontario Court of Appeal said:

However, just because one party is vulnerable it does not mean that – without more – a court will intervene. Sometimes the inherent inequality of bargaining power can be negated by outside factors – such as professional assistance [e.g. legal advice].

The primary question to be answered in determining “unconscionability” is whether there was inequality between the parties, or a preying of one upon the other, that placed an onus on the stronger party to act with scrupulous care for the welfare and interests of the vulnerable. As the Court in Rosen pointed out, it is “not the ability of one party to make a better bargain that counts. Seldom are contracting parties equal. It is the taking advantage of that ability to prey upon the other party that produces the unconscionability.”

Returning to the facts in Toscano, the court concluded that there had been no unconscionability in the circumstances leading up to the marriage contract as signed. The court said:

In this case, the marriage contract was a freely negotiated agreement between two educated and knowledgeable adults. Although Ms. Toscano was in a somewhat vulnerable position given the pressure of planning a large wedding which was to take place very soon, I do not find that pressure resulted in an overwhelming imbalance in the power relationship between the parties nor do I find Mr. Toscano took advantage of Ms. Toscano’s vulnerability to the extent necessary to demonstrate unconscionability in this context. Ms. Toscano was not under pressure or subject to other vulnerabilities that were not effectively compensated for by the ongoing involvement and presence of her independent legal counsel.

The court therefore declined to set the separation agreement aside on this particular ground.

For the full text of the decisions, see:

Toscano v. Toscano, 2015 ONSC 487 (CanLII)

Rick v. Brandsema, 2009 SCC 10 (CanLII), [2009] 1 S.C.R. 295

Rosen v. Rosen (1994), 1994 CanLII 2769 (ON CA), 3 R.F.L. (4th) 267 at para. 12 (Ont. C.A.)

At Russell Alexander, Family Lawyers our focus is exclusively family law, offering pre-separation legal advice and assisting clients with family related issues including: custody and access, separation agreements, child and spousal support, division of family property, paternity disputes, and enforcement of court orders. For more information, visit us at

Wife Rejects Husband’s Billion Dollar Settlement Cheque


Wife Rejects Husband’s Billion Dollar Settlement Cheque

We recently came across Jeff Lander’s article A Multi-Billion Dollar Divorce: What All Divorcing Women Can Learn From Sue Ann Hamm published in Forbes. Jeff provides insight into the lessons that can be learned from the divorce of Sue Ann Hamm from her estranged husband, Oklahoma oilman Harold Hamm in what he refers to as “teachable moments.”

Unlike the Ontario Family Law Act which provides for equalization of matrimonial property and assets, this case focuses on the principle of “equitable distribution” which includes factors such as “active and passive appreciation”. The Canadian approach to these concepts can be loosely found in cases involving constructive and resulting trust claims.

The Hamm divorce also raises important questions and issues regarding the parties’ date of separation (DOS). Similarly, Ontario’s Family Law Act utilizes the DOS as an important factor in calculating equalization and how married couples are to share their property when they divorce.

Not surprising, the Hamm case continues to make headlines as Sue Arnal, the wife’s lawyer, recently refused the oil baron husband’s cheque for $974,790,317.77.

To learn more about divorce in Ontario Russell Alexander, Collaborative Family Lawyers focuses exclusively on family law, offering pre-separation legal advice and assisting clients with family related issues including: custody and access, separation agreements, child and spousal support, division of family property, paternity disputes, and enforcement of court orders. For more information, visit us at

More on Do-It-Yourself Agreements: What Not To Do


More on Do-It-Yourself Agreements: What Not To Do

Recently I wrote about the case of Cramer v. Cramer in The Dangers of “Kitchen Table” Separation Agreements – Court Does a Re-Write where a court essentially re-wrote parts of a divorcing couple’s “kitchen table” separation agreement. They had prepared it with the help of an office-supply store kit; unfortunately it not only overlooked some very key provisions, it also ran afoul of Ontario family law.

Another recent case, Demaine v. Racine, provides further illustration of how a couple’s attempt to minimize legal fees actually ended up with a costly day in court.

There, the couple had drafted their own cohabitation agreement in 2005, based on a sample they found on the Internet. Once again, the agreement was created without benefit of independent legal advice on either side. (This was an attempt to save money: They had both recently ended prior relationships, and had spent substantial funds to extricate themselves). The goal was to protect their respective pre-relationship assets in advance of their 2006 marriage, which consisted mainly of the wife’s cottage, and the husband’s military pension. It was signed at their Ottawa home in presence of the wife’s friend, who served as the witness.

But when they separated in 2011, the husband denied ever signing the agreement at all. He applied to the court to have it set aside, and claimed that even if he did sign it, it was not fair or reasonable. Not surprisingly, the wife asked to have it declared enforceable.

The court found in the wife’s favour: The agreement was a valid domestic contract.

For one thing, the court found the husband’s claim that he was even in town at the time to be unconvincing, and found his evidence lacking:

17 The [husband] testified that he may not have even been at home in Ottawa on the date the Cohabitation Agreement was allegedly signed as he had been away a lot in Petawawa, in Toronto and in other locations at that time on pre-deployment training. He stated that he could have requested proof of his travel expenses submitted to the military for that time period but that it would have taken considerable time to get them just as it apparently took 13 months to get his pension information. However, the [husband] testified that he did not request the travel expense information until 3 months ago even though the [husband] has been aware of this issue for over 18 months. The [husband] stated that he could have called people who were on course with him to testify regarding the dates but he didn’t want to put them in a difficult position as they also know the [wife]. In summary, the [husband] produced no proof that he was away from Ottawa at that time and I am unable to find that he was away from Ottawa at that time.

(In fact, the court concluded the signature matched certain sample documents that had been signed by the husband.)

Next, the court concluded that there were no legal grounds for setting aside the agreement at all: the couple had each adequately (though not perfectly) disclosed their financial information to the other prior to signing the agreement; there was no evidence of duress; and no misrepresentations on either side. It complied with all the legal formalities required by Ontario law (i.e. an agreement in writing, signed by both parties, and witnessed). Both parties benefited under the agreement; it was not tilted in anyone’s favour.

Finally, the court dismissed the husband’s claim that he did not understand the nature or consequences of the agreement because he did not have independent legal advice. This was the husband’s choice, as he was keen to save legal costs. (In any case, the court found that the husband understood the agreement and its ramifications even without a lawyer). This alone was not a reason to set aside the agreement, absent other factors. The agreement was fair, freely-negotiated, and valid.

For the full text of the decision, see
Demaine v. Racine, 2013 ONSC 2940 (CanLII)

At Russell Alexander, Family Lawyers our focus is exclusively family law, offering pre-separation legal advice and assisting clients with family related issues including: custody and access, separation agreements, child and spousal support, division of family property, paternity disputes, and enforcement of court orders. To learn more visit us at


Top 10 Familyllb’s Blogs of 2012

top 10

Top 10 Familyllb’s Blogs of 2012

Well it has been another busy year for us as our blog has been viewed over 150, 000 times and we have received over 500 comments.  Thank you to everyone for your continued comments and support.

So in keeping with the year in review theme, here are our Top 10 Blog posting for 2012.

Number 10: New Proof of Parentage Requirements When Travelling with Children

This Blog examined why it’s important for parents to know that effective December 1, 2011, there are new proof-of-parentage requires for applications relating to travel by a child. These requirements are aimed at protecting Canadian children against child abduction, and designed to further enhance the security of the Canadian passport system.

New “proof of parentage” documentation required.

After December 1, 2011, for standard passport applications respecting children under the age of 16, the change involves a new requirement:  every application must be accompanied by “proof of parentage” documentation.

Number 9: Top Five Lottery Cases in Family Law

Lottery wins are a once-in-the-lifetime stroke of good fortune.   (At the least, they certainly happen less frequently than anyone hopes).  But in the case of married or common-law couples who buy the winning ticket, the joy of having a monetary windfall can quickly become tainted if they later separate or divorce, because issues often arises as to who gets the money, or how it is to be split.

So, in the unlikely event that these become relevant to our readers, this Blog reviewed the top five interesting lottery cases from across Canada.

Number 8: Ontario’s Bill 133 & Regulation for Pension Division to Commence January 2012

This Blog reviewed Ontario’s Attorney General Chris Bentley report that starting January 1, 2012, the pension division and valuation provisions in the Family Statute Law Amendment Act, 2009 will come into force. The changes are designed to make the family justice system more affordable, faster, simpler and less confrontational

Number 7: Top 5 Web Resources for Kids of Divorcing Parents

One of the most regrettable and usually unavoidable aspects of separation and divorce is the impact it can have on the children of the marriage. Even the most amicable separation-and-divorce scenarios are rife with challenges for all the parties, not the least of which are endured by the children who are the most emotionally ill-equipped to handle them. Parents may have difficulty knowing how best to support and accommodate their children’s needs during the difficult transitional period that inevitably accompanies the change in family lifestyle.

This Blog provided a list of the “Top 5” websites aimed at helping children through this phase.

Number 6: Wife Plans to Sue Ontario Family Responsibility Office for Husband’s Suicide

In the past few years, the government of Ontario implemented legislative amendments allowing drivers’ cars to be impounded and / or their licenses to be suspended in cases where they have failed to pay child support. This Blog took a look at how, according to a London, Ontario woman, this impact has directly caused the suicide of her common-law husband.

Number 5: 5 Ways to Make Sure Your Separation Agreement is Valid

Separation agreements can be a useful means by which separating spouses can take first steps toward unwinding their financial and family-related affairs by way of a mutual agreement. This Blog provided aa list of the top five ways to ensure that a separation agreement is valid and enforceable in Ontario.

Number 4: Top 5 Things to Know About the Canada Child Tax Benefit

 Soon it will be time to start thinking about individual income taxes, and all of the various components that go into providing the federal government with a financial “snapshot” for the past year.

For separated or divorcing spouses with children, one of those components is the Canada Child Tax Benefit (CCTB).

The Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) administers the CCTB, which is a monthly, tax-free benefit received on behalf of a child under the age of 18. Its purpose is to assist families with child-raising costs, and its value depends on family income, among other things.

This Blog examined 5 things to keep in mind about the CCTB.

Number 3: Top 10 Things to Know About Children and Passports

In this Blog we examined the relatively recent changes to children and the need to travel with passports.

Since June 1, 2009 all Canadians, including children travelling to the U.S., must present a document that is compliant with the Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative (WHTI). For entry into the U.S., this includes a Canadian passport or a NEXUS card when available.

Number 2: Top 5 Questions About Adultery and Divorce in Ontario

It seems that celebrity gossip tabloids will never have a shortage of topics to cover, as long as there are stories about extramarital affairs by successful, high-profile celebrities. Most recently, it has been alleged that Arnold Schwartzenegger fathered a child with the housekeeper employed in the home he shared with his wife of 25 years; prior to that, Tiger Woods has admitted to having sexual trysts with at least 14 women outside of his relatively short marriage.

In this blog we examine the role of adultery and Divorce in Ontario.

Number 1: 10 Things You Should Know About Child Support

This continues to be a very popular post and is evidence of the ongoing need that parents have to for information about child support.  This blog examines how all dependent children have a legal right to be financially supported by their parents. When parents live together with their children, they support the children together. Parents who do not live together often have an arrangement in which a child lives most of the time with one parent. That parent is said to have custody of the child. This arrangement can be written in a separation agreement or court order (sometimes called legal custody), or may occur without a written agreement or court order (sometimes called “de facto” custody). Either way, the parent with custody has the main responsibility for the day-to-day care of the child and has most of the ordinary expenses of raising the child. The other parent should help with those expenses by paying money to the parent with custody. This is called child support.

There you have it.  Our Top 10 Blogs for 2012.  Thank you  again to everyone who have visited our Blog and all your continued comments and support.

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