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Posts tagged ‘paternity disputes’

Saving the Golden Goose: Part III – Privacy, Protection, and Planning

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Saving the Golden Goose: Part III – Privacy, Protection, and Planning

This blog builds upon our previous blogs Saving the Golden Goose: Part I and Part II to discuss the importance of privacy, protection, and planning in managing the effects of separation and divorce on family businesses. One illustration of this arose in a case whereby both spouses owned shares in the family company. As an additional wrinkle, a third business partner was involved and actively expressed concerns about the effect of the separation and divorce on the business.

One spouse actively managed the finances of the business, and the other was less involved. This created an unbalanced feeling for the second spouse, who felt that they were open to being taken advantage of financially. The spouse in active management of the business was incredibly concerned about market changes and the viability of the business going forward into the future. This vulnerability split into discussions around how the business should be properly valued.

The spouses had several adult children who had been supported by the family business in various ways throughout their teenage years and adulthood, either through part time jobs or full time employment. These children had very vocal views on how the couple’s separation should proceed. The children also felt that the family cottage should remain in the possession of the spouse who was in active management of the family business, as it was a retirement plan.

In this matter, a full team approach was utilized to create a creative solution which met the spouse’s needs amidst the “background noise” of the children and the business partner. The family professional was able to mitigate any backlash from the children expressing their feelings about the family business and the cottage, and the financial professionals were able to ensure that the non-managing spouse felt competent enough to actively participate in the financial negotiations.

In order to ensure that the family business was preserved, several options were suggested by the team to the spouses:

Shares from non-managing spouse be transferred to managing spouse; other family property transferred to non-managing spouse

  • Shares from non-managing spouse be transferred as a gift to the children
  • Non-managing spouse retains cottage; managing spouse leases family cottage back and covers operating and capital costs with option of re-purchasing in the future
  • Non-managing spouse retains the shares for a period of five years during which the managing spouse acts as the voting proxy, after which time the managing spouse has the option of buying back the shares at the current value

Associated issues such as the capital gains liability of each scenario, as well as the valuation dates for transferred property were also taken into account. Notably, these options would not be available in the traditional court context. Perhaps most importantly, the spouses would not have had the “luxury” of being supported by an interdisciplinary team and provided time to process and decide which option made the most sense to themselves, their family, and their business.

The above case examples illustrate the ability of collaborative family law to shape a resolution with the best interests of the family business at the core. The collaborative process emphasizes privacy, protection, and planning. By keeping the matter outside of the courtroom, families can maximize their privacy with respect to the highly personal matter of restructuring their family and business.  The collaborative process offers a respectful alternative to the court system for those wishing to ensure that their legacy remains intact for generations to come through estate and succession planning for the business. The business does not need to be destroyed by family restructuring. Minimizing the financial and emotional impact of a separation and divorce on both the family and their business is a tall order, but it can be done with the support of an interdisciplinary team who is specially trained to identify creative solutions with the goal of resolution. This process allows spouses to take back control of your family’s future from impartial third party adjudicators.  Divorce and separation may represent both an ending and a beginning. Collaborative practice helps spouses anticipate and include their need to move forward, and makes the future of their business a key priority.

At Russell Alexander, Family Lawyers our focus is exclusively family law, offering pre-separation legal advice and assisting clients with family related issues including: custody and access, separation agreements, child and spousal support, division of family property, paternity disputes, and enforcement of court orders.  For more information, visit us at RussellAlexander.com

 

To Get or Vary Child Support, Do Your Kids Still have to be “Children”?

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To Get or Vary Child Support, Do Your Kids Still have to be “Children”?

An Ontario Court of Appeal decision recently brought to the forefront an interesting little legal point, about the court’s authority to make or change child support orders even after children are too old or too independent.

Under Canadian family law, section 15.1 of the federal Divorce Act allows a court to make an order requiring a parent to pay child support for any “children of the marriage”.   (And this term is defined by the Act to include: 1) a child under the age of majority (who has not otherwise withdrawn from his or her parent’s charge), and 2) a child who is over the age of majority but still dependent.)

Based on a prior ruling decided by the Supreme Court of Canada, a court only has the authority to make a child support order if, at the time of the initial application by the parent, the children fall under this “children of the marriage” definition.  In other words, if the support-recipient parent waits until the children are over the age of majority or no longer dependent, then he or she is out of luck since the court lacks jurisdiction to retrospectively make a child support order at that point.

A recent Ontario Court of Appeal decision called Colucci v. Colucci, the court considered a related question: Can a parent apply to the court to vary a child support order, even after the children stop being “children of the marriage”?

The facts of the case involved a father of two children who had been ordered to pay child support but eventually fell into arrears of more than $175,000.  By that time, both children ceased to be “children of the marriage.”  Faced by the prospect of a significant decline in his income as an unskilled labourer, the father brought a motion to change the child support order retroactively, and have his arrears rescinded on the ground that there had been a change in circumstances.

The Appeal Court reviewed the governing law when an order could be varied, as found s. 17 of the Divorce Act.  It was differently worded than the initial-support provision in section 15.1; the stated test for whether a court had the authority to vary an order was different from the test to make an order in the first place.  The Appeal Court concluded that based on that wording, a court did indeed have jurisdiction to vary an existing order even after the children are no longer dependents. (And from an Ontario family law perspective, it should be noted that this aligns with the court’s jurisdiction under the provincial Family Law Act to vary child support orders retroactively in such circumstances).

Although the Colucci decision does not foretell that every parent’s application to vary child support will succeed (since that must be determined on a case-by-case basis), the law is now abundantly clear that a court had the authority to change orders even after the children no longer fall within the “children of the marriage” definition.

For the full text of the decision, see:

Colucci v. Colucci

At Russell Alexander, Family Lawyers our focus is exclusively family law, offering pre-separation legal advice and assisting clients with family related issues including: custody and access, separation agreements, child and spousal support, division of family property, paternity disputes, and enforcement of court orders.  For more information, visit us at RussellAlexander.com

Saving the Golden Goose: Part II – Including Specialized Professions as An Alternative Option to the Traditional Court System

Saving the Golden Goose: Part II – Including Specialized Professions as An Alternative Option to the Traditional Court System

As mentioned in our previous blog Saving the Golden Goose: Part I, a court process allows for only a rights based determination of the issues at hand. However, there are many intricacies involved in the enmeshment of family business and the process of separation and divorce. As an alternative to a purely rights based approach, other options can be considered in the collaborative approach, including:

  • Family trusts or holding companies as a method of sharing income from the family business
  • Tax planning, avoiding the possibility of triggering a Canada Revenue Agency audit
  • Considering the formation of a new family trust
  • Employment of children in the family business
  • Estate, succession, and capacity planning
  • Ensuring insurance is in place to cushion the effects of any risks
  • Gifting shares or portions of the family business to children or other family members
  • Maintaining the privacy of the family business
  • Managing the continuation of income streams
  • Splitting income amongst family members
  • Delaying equalization or sharing business payments (Ie: if and when the family business sells)
  • Preserving the family legacy for generations
  • Recognizing and predicting the ebb and flow of the market and business patterns

Unlike the court system, the collaborative process is unique in that it offers the additional benefit of involving neutral professionals who specialize in associated areas, listed above. These neutrals are able to address relevant areas of the family law matter, often with more experience in their particular field than lawyers. Neutrals are also able to complete work at their hourly rate, rather than at the lawyer’s fee. They are also able to take on some of the information gathering that would alternatively be completed by the spouses, which can be stressful. This makes including neutrals an efficient way to deal with issues in a cost effective manner.

Financial Professionals

Collaborative Financial Specialists may be accountants, financial planners, and business valuators who have expertise in helping separating families address issues relating to the family business. They play a vital role in the collaborative process by ensuring that clients provide full and frank financial disclosure. Financial disclosure includes aspects such as income, liabilities, and assets of both the spouses and the business. A business valuator may value the business and, as in the case of many self employed individuals, complete an income analysis to determine yearly income for support purposes. In the collaborative process, family business owners can work alongside the financial professional and/or business valuator to assist them in understanding the intricacies of the business based on its unique field.

Financial Specialists thoroughly vet the documents and prepare detailed reports which help to streamline settlement discussions. Financial Specialists further add value to the collaborative process by educating clients about their finances and helping to manage their expectations from a neutral perspective. This impartial stance helps to keep client expectations realistic, making negotiated settlement more likely.

Another key benefit of financial professionals is their ability to “even the playing field”. In some family matters, one spouse may have been much more involved in the finances of the family business. The other spouse may feel they are ill equipped to negotiate the finances associated with the business, and may worry about being taken advantage of by their spouse. A financial neutral can spend time separately with both parties to ensure that all the cards are on the table, and that each spouse understands the basis upon which they are negotiating.

Family Professionals

While it may not immediately seem to be a common sense approach to include a family professional within the context of a family business matter, family professionals can often deal with may of the underlying issues associated with restructuring a family and a family business. Emotions can run additionally high when dealing with the very real and salient issues associated with the individuals which make up a family business team.

Much of the concept of “Interest Based Negotiation” centers on interests that are not purely financial. A family professional can assist in identifying and bringing these interests to the table. Anger, loss and grief are a natural part of divorce or separation, especially when a family’s livelihood is on the line. A family neutral gives families access to support and guidance for managing these emotions which can intensify the conflict and derail settlement attempts in traditional divorce.

Collaborative Family Professionals are counselors, social workers, psychologists or mediators who have specialized skills in handling the emotional aspects of the issues pertaining to separation and divorce. They further discuss parenting, and help ensure that feelings, needs, and concerns are understood and respected where children concerned. This is especially pertinent when there are children working within a family business, who have their own independent concerns about how the divorce will affect their future within the business context.

At Russell Alexander, Family Lawyers our focus is exclusively family law, offering pre-separation legal advice and assisting clients with family related issues including: custody and access, separation agreements, child and spousal support, division of family property, paternity disputes, and enforcement of court orders.  For more information, visit us at RussellAlexander.com

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Wednesday’s Video Clip: Does The Age of The Child Affect Child Support in Ontario?


Wednesday’s Video Clip: Does The Age of The Child Affect Child Support in Ontario?

Simply put, the age of a child does affect the amount of child support ordered. In this video we discuss how and when the age of the child could affect child support. Income considerations, age of the child and needs of the child should be considered.

At Russell Alexander, Family Lawyers our focus is exclusively family law, offering pre-separation legal advice and assisting clients with family related issues including: custody and access, separation agreements, child and spousal support, division of family property, paternity disputes, and enforcement of court orders.  For more information, visit us at RussellAlexander.com

Is It Your New Year’s Resolution to Get a Divorce?

Is It Your New Year’s Resolution to Get a Divorce?

In a piece recently reported by the CBC News, and well as a post from Huffington Post Canada it seems that January is the prime time of year for couples to initiate divorce, based on the number of court-filed applications. According to another article in the U.S. divorce filings begin to spike in January, and peak in February and March.   January is when divorce lawyers report seeing a spike in consultations from disgruntled husbands and wives, who at least want to do some information-gathering, by exploring the various financial and child-related repercussions that a formal separation or divorce would entail. After that, according to the article, many who are willing to commit to a split will return in February or March to get the ball rolling. Similar trends have been reported in other articles.

So what’s behind the trend? Apparently, those in troubled partnerships will try to keep the status quo throughout the holidays – especially if children are involved – only to formally separate or embark on marital counselling once the festivities are over. The reason for this timing is largely (shall we say) “sentimental”: People don’t want to initiate divorce proceedings immediately before, or during, the holidays. They may not want to put a pall over what is ideally supposed to be a family-oriented, idyllic season of the year.   Or, they may want to delay so that the family can have one final holiday together, before they split.

For others – especially those individuals who have already started to secretly contemplate divorce, or for those embattled couples who have begun to discuss the prospect between themselves – the “fresh start” quality of New Year, and the tradition of making resolutions, may prompt unhappy partners to re-evaluate their future and finally make the break they have been contemplating.

At Russell Alexander, Family Lawyers our focus is exclusively family law, offering pre-separation legal advice and assisting clients with family related issues including: custody and access, separation agreements, child and spousal support, division of family property, paternity disputes, and enforcement of court orders. For more information, visit us at RussellAlexander.com

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Saving the Golden Goose: Part I – How Family Run Businesses can Survive and Thrive after Divorce

Saving the Golden Goose: Part I – How Family Run Businesses can Survive and Thrive after Divorce

One of the common fears of clients who own family run businesses is how a divorce will affect the business they have spent their life building. While business owners have control over the work they put into their business and the legacy they are building for their family, they may have little influence over a relationship breakdown. The worry in regards to the effects of this breakdown on a business can cause additional stress above and beyond the heartache associated with restructuring a family.

In many family law matters involving children, the spouses are able to agree to cooperate in order to address the best interests of the children. In many ways, a family business can be used as a similar incentive: spouses can agree to cooperate in order to address the best interests of the family business. While fueling conflict is an almost unavoidable side effect of the court system, a collaborative approach is a very effective method in reducing the impact of separation and divorce on family run businesses. This process seeks to ensure that the business remains viable for both spouses, as well as future generations.

What is Collaborative Practice?

Collaborative Practice Family Law offers an effective alternative to the inherently adversarial court process. Both parties must enter into the process voluntarily, and agree to resolve their issues respectfully. While the court process is oriented based on the legal rights and obligations of both parties, the collaborative process allows both parties to generate options that best suit their family. This allows the family much more self determination in creating an outcome based on their specific needs. Specially training collaborative lawyers work with both parties to guide them through the process, and are available to offer legal advice and support to their clients when appropriate.

Both parties’ lawyers also commit themselves to coming to a mutually agreeable resolution. The parties must agree in advance that should the collaborative process fail, neither party may use their collaborative lawyer to advance their position in court. This creates an environment conducive to negotiation and settlement, outside of court.

The underlying philosophy of the collaborative divorce process is that the parties mutually agree to completely avoid the court process, with the result being a faster, cheaper and more amicable divorce or separation.

A Flexible Alternative to Court

As mentioned above, the collaborative process allows spouses to shape the outcome of their separation and divorce. In contrast, judges in the court system have limited statutory options available them when presented with these disputes. Their analysis is built upon a determination of the legal rights and obligations of the parties under the Family Law Act. Furthermore, family law judges may struggle to understand the time and effort that goes into building and running a business, and the concept that income is not necessarily guaranteed or consistent. Issues such as liquidity of assets, the risks associated with owning a business, and ensuring that funding remains stable are complex, and family judges are not necessarily trained to analyze these concepts. Due to these restrictions, often a court process will result in the sale of business at a significant discount, which ultimately results in a significant loss of family wealth.

Collaborative family law is an option that operates outside of the court system. It allows the spouses much more privacy than a court process does, which a huge additional benefit to those owning family businesses. Issues such as tax planning or corporate share transfers can be done with reduced publicity. Both spouses are able to sit down with one another, and their lawyers, to discuss a solution that is beneficial to both the business and the family unit. Spouses can determine whether or not it is a realistic option to continue to operate the business jointly, or if one should step down. In the latter situation, flexible payment structures can be created to ensure that the business is not destroyed in the wake of one spouse leaving. This fosters the health of the family business, and promotes growth and stability for future income and the building of capital which ultimately supports the family.

At Russell Alexander, Family Lawyers our focus is exclusively family law, offering pre-separation legal advice and assisting clients with family related issues including: custody and access, separation agreements, child and spousal support, division of family property, paternity disputes, and enforcement of court orders.  For more information, visit us at RussellAlexander.com

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Russell Alexander, Family Lawyers


At Russell Alexander Family Lawyers, we are committed to practicing exclusively in the area of family law. As a result, our team is experienced in dealing with all aspects of family law matters, including:

  • Separation and divorce Child custody and access
  • Child support Spousal support
  • The Family Responsibility Office (FRO)
  • Division of family property
  • Family mediation and alternative forms of dispute resolution
  • Domestic contracts, including separation agreements, paternity agreements and marriage contracts

Because our work is focused solely on family law, we understand the difficulties individuals face when going through a separation or divorce. We understand that family law can be very complex, and that its complexity can be amplified when coupled with emotionally straining circumstances.

Our office will help you by providing you with guidance during what can be a very difficult time in your life. This means providing you with the information to help you to identify and understand the issues, as well as the options and opportunities available to you to help in this transition. It means working with you to design a plan to help you make progress and achieve your goals. We will keep you informed about matters as they arise and discuss with you any significant decisions that you are required to make. We will provide you with our best legal advice, but ultimately you will make the final decisions and provide us with instructions.

At Russell Alexander, Family Lawyers our focus is exclusively family law, offering pre-separation legal advice and assisting clients with family related issues including: custody and access, separation agreements, child and spousal support, division of family property, paternity disputes, and enforcement of court orders.  For more information, visit us at RussellAlexander.com

Top 10 Blogs of 2017

Top 10 Blogs of 2017

As we embrace the New Year, we’d like to take the opportunity to thank our readers for their continued interest and support. We would also like to recap some of our most popular posts from yet another busy year.

Here are some of our top blogs from 2017

Number 10: Ontario Superior Court Justice Pazaratz Speaks Out Against Legal Aid Squandering – Again

In his written endorsement of a consent order in Abdulaali v. Salih, Justice Pazaratz characteristically drew attention to the perceived waste of public funds in the case before him. He unapologetically chastised both Legal Aid Ontario and the parties for “squandering scarce judicial and community resources.” He bluntly stated that the case should not have been dragged out so long, and should not have been funded by public coffers so indiscriminately.

Number 9: Court to Delinquent Husband: If You Don’t Play By the Rules, You Don’t Get to Play

With unpaid cost awards of $10,000 and $25,000 from prior decisions, a husband sought an extension for appealing yet another judgment. In Schwilgin v. Szivy, the Court of Appeal for Ontario yielded the wife’s cries for justice in a situation where successive cost awards in her favor ironically left her with an empty wallet. The Court disapproved of the husband’s use of court procedure to delay payment of arrears, effectively, restoring wife’s faith in justice and putting husband on ice.

Number 8: Wife Dumps Husband Over Trump

Would you end a marriage of 22 years over politics? Not “politics” in the colloquial sense—actual governmental politics. 73-year old Gayle McCormick of the U.S. did exactly that. After learning of her husband’s intention to vote for Donald Trump, the retired Californian prison guard was “in shock.” Although Gayle’s husband never ended up voting for Trump, the damage was already done—she became “totally undid” after she saw his true Republican colors. Not even the adhesive backing of a toupee could hold them together after his revelation.

Number 7: Separation Agreement Drafting Error: Can a Spouse Take Advantage

This post recapped the importance of achieving a “meeting of the minds” at the bargaining table. In Stevens v. Stevens, the husband sought to enforce a marriage contract drafted by his wife’s lawyer apportioning the whole value of the matrimonial home to him. The husband and his lawyer’s attempt to take advantage of the drafting error were met with harsh criticism as the Court found in favor of the wife. The Court declined literal interpretation of the contract as the wife clearly intended only a half interest.

Number 6: Calling Someone a “Liar” Online: Is that Defamation, or Merely “Comment”?

This post explores an interesting legal question arising from a not-so common scenario:

From 2008-2010, Levant, an outspoken political commentator, posted nine blogs each bearing a headline calling Awan, a law student, a “liar.” Levant’s digital tirade was prompted by Awan’s testimony at a human rights tribunal in which Awan and fellow law students alleged a Mclean’s magazine cover story titled “The Future Belongs to Islam” had an Islamophobic tone. Levant argued his remarks were merely comments and not defamation in the ordinary sense.

The question is this: Is calling someone a “liar” merely a “comment” made as part of an online discourse, and therefore, not defamatory?

No. The usual defences to defamation do not prevail where there is evidence of malice, as in the case of Awan v. Levant. Levant was ordered to pay Awan $50,000 in general damages and $30,000 in aggravated damages.

Number 5: Father Who Paid $400K in Legal Fees to “Cause Financial Harm to the Mother and His Son” Ordered to Pay Mother’s Costs Too

Does justice favour the party with the biggest legal bill? In Jordan v. Stewart, we commented on a case where a father paid $400K in legal fees seeking to terminate child support.

The Judge denied the father’s request and chastised him for the logic-defying extent he was willing to go in satisfaction of that end. Ultimately, the father’s wanton disregard for the financial consequences and refusal to accept reasonable offers by his ex-wife, resulted in the somewhat ironic outcome of a costs award to the wife.

Number 4: If a Biological Parent is Paying Child Support, Does a Step-Parent Still Have to Pay?

This blog post explored the interesting legal issue of whether a step-parent should pay child support. The legal test is whether the step-parent whom an order for child support is sought against “stands in the place of a parent for a child.” Such determination cannot be made without consideration of all the material circumstances.

In Stetler v. Stetler, a step-father who provided financial support to his partner’s child over the duration of their 8-year relationship refused to pay child support as the child’s biological father had been paying child support all along. The Court found the circumstances of the step-father’s relationship to the child clearly met the legal test.

Number 3: Court Strikes Family Law Firm’s $72,500 “Premium” as Being a Contingency Fee

Few would dispute that legal fees can be expensive. This becomes painfully more obvious when a family law lawyer charges a “premium” for achieving positive results. In Ontario, section 28.1(3) of the Solicitors Act prohibits contingency fee agreements in a family law matter.

The case of Jackson v. Stephen Durbin and Associates serves as a clear reminder to prospective clients with a family law matter: Read the fine print and always ask your lawyer clarifying questions about fees you suspect may be a contingency fee disguised as something else.

Number 2: Self-Represented Wife Asks for $18K in Legal Costs; Court Awards $30K Instead

It pays to be a well prepared self-represented litigant – literally. In the decision of McMurter v. McMurter, a self-represented litigant successfully opposed her husband’s motion to terminate spousal support obligations in a trial that lasted 15 days.

The wife’s request for costs was met with an unusual turn of events – it was improved by the Judge. She requested costs in the amount of $18,000, but ended up receiving $30,000. The quality of her written submissions and oral representation at Court were credited for the irregular increase.

Number 1: Husband’s Hidden Bedroom Cam Nets Wife $15,000 in Damages for Privacy Invasion

This post continues to be popular, and has been our most viewed blog entry this year. In this post we explored the scandalous topic of privacy invasion inside the bedroom. As if separation and divorce weren’t already difficult enough, the wife in the case of Patel v. Sheth became the star of her husband’s hidden camera during a brief period of reconciliation and resumed cohabitation.

The wife sought $50,000 in damages against her husband for intruding upon her seclusion, a new common law tort introduced to redress privacy invasion. The Court found in her favor and awarded her $15,000 in damages. While she did not receive damages to the extent she had been hoping, she undoubtedly walked away feeling vindicated.

At Russell Alexander, Family Lawyers our focus is exclusively family law, offering pre-separation legal advice and assisting clients with family related issues including: custody and access, separation agreements, child and spousal support, division of family property, paternity disputes, and enforcement of court orders. For more information, visit us at RussellAlexander.com

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Should Family Law Claims Involving Indigenous Couples Be Governed by Indigenous Law?

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Should Family Law Claims Involving Indigenous Couples Be Governed by Indigenous Law?

In an uncommon recent Ontario family decision, the issue was whether a former couple of Indigenous heritage should have their family dispute governed by the laws that govern their particular clan, rather than by the family laws of Ontario.

The man was a wealthy Indigenous co-owner of the largest cigarette company on the Six Nations reserve, earning over $2.1 million per year tax-free.  He faced claims for child and spousal support from a woman with whom he had an 8-year-old son. She was claiming almost $86,000 per month in spousal support, and $33,000 per month in child support.

In a court hearing, the man argued that since he was part of the Haudenosaunee people, his family law dispute should be governed by Haudenosaunee laws, not by the usual Ontario family law.  He asserted that the Indigenous people had an inherent right to self-government, including the resolution of family law issues, and that for the Ontario court to apply a different law to them was a violation of the constitutional rights of the Indigenous.

(Incidentally, the woman disagreed with the man’s position, pointing out that she and her son are Tuscarora, but were not culturally Haudenosaunee.   They had neither a clan, an Indigenous name from a Clan Mother, nor a Long House that they attended on a regular basis. She was content to have the usual Ontario family laws govern their dispute).

After hearing and examining the man’s argument in detail, the court rejected his position.  The court was entitled to assume that the Ontario Family Law Act and the Children’s Law Reform Act, along with their associated Regulations, were all designed to promote a public interest; this meant that the man had to demonstrate how exempting him from the legislation’s operation would benefit the public (among other things).  The court found that he had completely failed to do so, adding:

 In the absence of even basic specifics regarding the Haudenosaunee laws and protocols that he is relying on, these assertions are akin to an empty shell.  This is particularly so given that the Children’s Law Reform Act likewise focusses on the best interests of children, and requires the court to give significant weight to a child’s aboriginal heritage and the importance of maintaining connections with that heritage. 

What are your thoughts? Should Indigenous people be governed only by Indigenous law?

For the full text of the decision, see:

Beaver v. Hill

At Russell Alexander, Family Lawyers our focus is exclusively family law, offering pre-separation legal advice and assisting clients with family related issues including: custody and access, separation agreements, child and spousal support, division of family property, paternity disputes, and enforcement of court orders.  For more information, visit us at RussellAlexander.com

 

 

 

Wednesday’s Video Clip: Who Is Considered a Parent?

 

Wednesday’s Video Clip: Who Is Considered a Parent?

When it relates to family law, a parent can be the birth mother or father, an adoptive parent, or a step-parent.

In this video,  a Law Clerk with Russell Alexander Family Lawyers, discusses who is considered a parent for the purpose of child support, along with the role of step parents.

At Russell Alexander, Family Lawyers our focus is exclusively family law, offering pre-separation legal advice and assisting clients with family related issues including: custody and access, separation agreements, child and spousal support, division of family property, paternity disputes, and enforcement of court orders.  For more information, visit us at RussellAlexander.com